PDF Britains Cities: Geographies of Division in Urban Britain

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City of London

Ships with Tracking Number! May not contain Access Codes or Supplements. May be ex-library. Buy with confidence, excellent customer service!. Published by London : Routledge From: MW Books Ltd. Galway, Ireland. About this Item: London : Routledge, Fine copy in the original color-printed, stiff-card wrappers. Particularly and surprisingly well-preserved; tight, bright, clean and especially sharp-cornered. Physical description; xvii, pages : illustrations ; 23 cm. Notes; Includes bibliographical references and index.

Contents; Introduction. The Structural Content of Urban Division. Summary; Uneven distribution of life is a dominant feature of the city. Major social, economic and spatial divisions are apparent in terms of income and wealth, health, crime, housing, and employment. This text offers an introduction to current processes of urban restructuring, geographies of division and contemporary conditions within the city.

The geography of Britain's cities is the outcome of interaction between a host of public and private economic, social and political forces operating at a variety of spatial scales from the global to the local. A deeper understanding of the nature of urban division and of the problems of and prospects for local people and places in urban Britain must be grounded in an appreciation of the structural forces, processes and contextual factors which condition local urban geographies.

This book combines structural and local level perspectives to illuminate the complex geography of socio-spatial division within urban Britain. It combines conceptual and empirical analyses from researchers in the field. Subjects; Cities and towns - Great Britain. Urban geography - Great Britain. What has been done to tackle inequality since ?

However, a fifth of all employees remain on low pay, the majority of whom are women. The Bank of England dropped interest rates close to zero straight after the financial crisis to stimulate the creation of jobs and growth, while pumping billions into the economy through quantitative easing, through which it acquired bonds from financial institutions. Some economists argue the effect was to inflate asset prices, by making borrowing cheaper for those buying residential property, and benefiting the wealthiest in society. Threadneedle Street argues its actions were neutral because cheaper borrowing helped people pay their mortgages and companies keep people in work.

Public sector pay has been frozen for several years. Has it worked? Some economists who sit on the righthand side of the political spectrum argue that inequality is the price of economic growth, and that when the better-off in society flourish, those at the bottom do also from the so-called trickle-down effect. However, the International Monetary Fund, which specialises in rescuing troubled economies, has warned that countries with greater levels of income and wealth inequality are inherently less stable.

When the rich channel their savings into property and financial assets, an economy can become more volatile — as seen in the run-up to the financial crisis. In some places the financial district extends slightly beyond the boundaries, notably to the north and east, into the London Boroughs of Tower Hamlets, Hackney and Islington, and informally these locations are seen as part of the "Square Mile". Since the s the eastern fringe, extending into Hackney and Tower Hamlets, has increasingly been a focus for large office developments due to the availability of large sites compared to within the City.

The City has no sizeable parks within its boundary, but does have a network of a large number of gardens and small open spaces, many of them maintained by the Corporation. These range from formal gardens such as the one in Finsbury Circus , containing a bowling green and bandstand , to churchyards such as St Olave Hart Street , to water features and artwork in courtyards and pedestrianised lanes.

There are a number of private gardens and open spaces, often within courtyards of the larger commercial developments. The Thames and its riverside walks are increasingly being valued as open space and in recent years efforts have been made to increase the ability for pedestrians to access and walk along the river.

Now St. James Park provides the nearest official readings. This generally causes higher night-time minima than outlying areas.

Administrative geography of the United Kingdom

For example, the August mean minimum [48] of All figures refer to the observation period — Accordingly, the weather station holds the record for the UK's warmest overnight minimum temperature, Unusually, this temperature was during a windy and snowy cold spell mid-January , rather than a cold clear night—cold air drainage is arrested due to the vast urban area surrounding the city. The station holds the record for the highest British mean monthly temperature, [55] The City is a police area and has its own police force , the City of London Police , separate from the Metropolitan Police Service covering the majority of Greater London.

Where the majority of British police forces have silver-coloured badges , those of the City of London Police are black and gold featuring the City crest. The force has rare red and white chequered cap bands and unique red and white striped duty arm bands on the sleeves of the tunics of constables and sergeants red and white being the colours of the City , which in most other British police forces are black and white.

City police sergeants and constables wear crested custodian helmets whilst on foot patrol. These helmets do not feature either St Edward's Crown or the Brunswick Star , which are used on most other police helmets in England and Wales. The City's position as the United Kingdom's financial centre and a critical part of the country's economy, contributing about 2. The Provisional IRA exploded several bombs in the early s, including the Bishopsgate bombing.

The area is also spoken of as a possible target for al-Qaeda. For instance, when in May the BBC's Panorama programme examined the preparedness of Britain's emergency services for a terrorist attack on the scale of the September 11, attacks , they simulated a chemical explosion on Bishopsgate in the east of the City. The "Ring of Steel" is a particularly notable measure, established in the wake of the IRA bombings, that has been taken against terrorist threats. The first fire engine is in attendance in roughly five minutes on average, the second when required in a little over five and a half minutes.

No-one died in an event arising from a fire in the four years prior to There is power station located in Charterhouse Street that also provides heat to some of the surrounding buildings [64]. The Office for National Statistics recorded the population in as 7,; [1] slightly higher than in the last census , , [66] and estimates the population as at mid to be 9, At the census the ethnic composition was The first half of the 19th century shows a population of between ,—,, decreasing dramatically from to , with a small increase between and The only notable boundary change since the first census in occurred in The City vies with New York City's Downtown Manhattan as the financial capital of the world; many banking and insurance institutions have their headquarters there.

Over banks have offices in the City, and the City is an established leader in trading in Eurobonds , foreign exchange , energy futures and global insurance. The Alternative Investment Market , a market for trades in equities of smaller firms, is a recent development. In , the City of London accounted for 2. London is the world's greatest foreign exchange market , with much of the trade conducted in the City of London.

Since Canary Wharf , a few miles east of the City in Tower Hamlets, has become another centre for London's financial services industry which houses many banks and other institutions formerly located in the Square Mile. Although growth has continued in both locations, and there have been relocations in both directions, the Corporation has come to realise that its planning policies may have been causing financial firms to choose Canary Wharf as a location. Whilst the financial sector, and related businesses and institutions, continue to dominate, the economy is not limited to that sector.

The legal profession has a strong presence, especially in the west and north i. Retail businesses were once important, but have gradually moved to the West End of London , though it is now Corporation policy to encourage retailing in some locations, for example at Cheapside near St Paul's. The City has a number of visitor attractions, mainly based on its historic heritage as well as the Barbican Centre and adjacent Museum of London , though tourism is not at present a major contributor to the City's economy or character.

The City has many pubs, bars and restaurants, and the "night-time" economy does feature in the Bishopsgate area, towards Shoreditch. The meat market at Smithfield , wholly within the City, continues to be one of London's main markets the only one remaining in central London and the country's largest meat market. In the east is Leadenhall Market , a fresh food market that is also a visitor attraction. The trend for purely office development is beginning to reverse as the Corporation encourages residential use, albeit with development occurring when it arises on windfall sites.

The City has a target of 90 additional dwellings per year. Recent residential developments include "the Heron", a high-rise residential building on the Milton Court site adjacent to the Barbican, and the Heron Plaza development on Bishopsgate is also expected to include residential parts. Since the s, the City has diversified away from near exclusive office use in other ways. For example, several hotels and the first department store opened in the s. However, large sections remain quiet at weekends, especially in the eastern section, and it is quite common to find shops, pubs and cafes closed on these days.

Britains Cities Geographies Division - AbeBooks

Fire bombing and post- World War II redevelopment have meant that the City, despite its history, has fewer intact historic structures than one might expect. Nonetheless, there remain many dozens of mostly Victorian and Edwardian fine buildings, typically in historicist and neoclassical style. Another example of a bomb-damaged place having been restored is Staple Inn on Holborn. Among the twentieth-century listed buildings are Bracken House , the first post World War II buildings in the country to be given statutory protection, and the whole of the Barbican and Golden Lane Estate.

The Tower of London is not in the City, but is a notable visitor attraction which brings tourists to the southeast of the City. Noteworthy contemporary buildings include a number of modern high-rise buildings see section below as well as the Lloyd's building. A growing number of tall buildings and skyscrapers are principally used by the financial sector.

Almost all are situated in the eastern side around Bishopsgate , Leadenhall Street and Fenchurch Street , in the financial core of the City. In the north there is a smaller cluster comprising the Barbican Estate 's three tall residential towers and the commercial CityPoint tower. Seven of the eleven London Underground lines run through the City, serving eleven stations. Moorgate is the terminus for suburban services from Hertfordshire , and two through-routes operate mostly underground along the main axes:.

The City is in Travelcard Zone 1. The City, like most of central London, is well served by buses , including night buses. Two bus stations are in the City, at Aldgate on the eastern boundary with Tower Hamlets, and at Liverpool Street by the railway station.


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There are approximately 28 Santander Cycles docking stations in the City. One of the Port of London 's 25 safeguarded wharves , Walbrook Wharf , is adjacent to Cannon Street station, and is used by the Corporation to transfer waste via the river. Swan Lane Pier, just upstream of London Bridge, is proposed to be replaced and upgraded for regular passenger services, planned to take place in — Before then, Tower Pier is to be extended.

There is a public riverside walk along the river bank, opened in stages over recent years. The only section not running along the river is a short stretch at Queenhithe. The walk along Walbrook Wharf is closed to pedestrians when waste is being transferred onto barges. According to a survey conducted in March , the methods by which employed residents 16—74 get to work varied widely: City residents send their children to schools in neighbouring Local Education Authorities , such as Islington , Tower Hamlets , Westminster and Southwark. The City of London School for Girls has its own preparatory department for entrance at age seven.

The College of Law has its London campus in Moorgate. Membership is open to all — with one official proof of address required to join. Guildhall Library, and City Business Library are also public reference libraries, specialising in the history of London and business reference resources. Author and journalist Nicholas Shaxson argued that, in return for the financial institutions based in the City raising loans and finance for the British government, the City "has extracted privileges and freedoms from rules and laws to which the rest of Britain must submit".

He further claims that the assistance provided to the institutions based within it, many of which help their rich clients with offshore tax arrangements, mean that the City is "a tax haven in its own right". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the historic city and financial district within London. For the capital city of England and the United Kingdom, see London. For other uses, see City of London disambiguation and London disambiguation. City and county in United Kingdom. City and county. Coat of arms. Location within Greater London. Mid est.

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Main article: History of London. Main article: Roman London. Main article: Anglo-Saxon London. See also: Norman and Medieval London. This article appears to contradict the article Freedom of the City. Please see discussion on the linked talk page. June Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Main article: Wards of the City of London. See also: List of public art in the City of London. Main article: London Fire Brigade. See also: Economy of London. See also: List of tallest buildings and structures in London. See also: Transport in London. London portal. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 4 July See Classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom for the full descriptions used in the Census.

City status in the British Isles, — Historical urban studies. Aldershot: Ashgate. Dictionary of London Place Names. Oxford University Press. Of course until relatively recent times the name London referred only to the City of London with even Westminster remaining a separate entity. But when the County of London was created in , the name often came to be rather loosely used for this much larger area, which was also sometimes referred to as Greater London from about this date. However, in Greater London was newly defined as a much enlarged area. Corporation of London.

July Retrieved 10 April This is Money. Retrieved 30 October Government of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original PDF on 5 November Retrieved 21 April The World and Its People. Silver, Burdett. Retrieved 26 July The City of London. Retrieved 25 August Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 16 February BBC News.

Retrieved 7 February Colgrave, Bertram; Mynors, R. Ecclesiastical History of the English People.