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"An extremely well-written textbook covering an important area of psychology in which suitable books are currently lacking. The author draws on a large body of.
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- Hormones And Behavior (SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY) - IResearchNet
- Rapid Effects of Steroid Hormones on Animal Behavior
- The Biological Approach
Bouchard and McGue conducted a review of worldwide studies which compared the IQ of family members. The correlation figures below represent the average degree of similarity between the two people the higher the similarity, the more similar the IQ scores.
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However, there are methodological flaws which reduce the validity of twin studies. For example, Bouchard and McGue included many poorly performed and biased studies in their meta-analysis. Also, studies comparing the behavior of twin raised apart have been criticized as the twins often share similar environments and are sometimes raised by non-parental family member. It is important to appreciate that the human brain is an extremely complicated piece of biological machinery. The brain can influence many types of behavior. In addition to studying brain damaged patients, we can find out about the working of the brain in three other ways.
Children begin to plan activities, make up games, and initiate activities with others. If given this opportunity, children develop a sense of initiative and feel secure in their ability to lead others and make decisions. We know so little about the brain and its functions are so closely integrated that brain surgery is usually only attempted as a last resort.
This technique cured his epilepsy, but in the process the hippocampus had to be removed this is part of the limbic system in the middle of the brain. Afterwards, H. So now we know the hippocampus is involved in memory. Electrodes are attached to the scalp and brain waves can be traced.
During this, our brain waves begin to resemble those of our waking state though we are still fast asleep and it seems that this is when we dream whether we remember it or not. More recently methods of studying the brain have been developed using various types of scanning equipment hooked up to powerful computers. Even more sophisticated is the PET scan Positron Emission Tomography which uses a radioactive marker as a way of studying the brain at work. The procedure is based on the principle that the brain requires energy to function and that the regions more involved in the performance of a task will use up more energy.
What the scan, therefore, enables researchers to do is to provide ongoing pictures of the brain as it engages in mental activity. These and other methods for producing images of brain structure and functioning have been extensively used to study language and PET scans, in particular, are producing evidence that suggests that the Wernicke-Gerschwind model may not after all be the answer to the question of how language is possible.
Theories within the biological approach support nature over nurture. However, it is limiting to describe behavior solely in terms of either nature or nurture, and attempts to do this underestimate the complexity of human behavior. It is more likely that behavior is due to an interaction between nature biology and nurture environment. For example, individuals may be predisposed to certain behaviors, but these behaviors may not be displayed unless they are triggered by factors in the environment.
Henckens, M. Dynamically changing effects of corticosteroids on human hippocampal and prefrontal processing. Brain Mapp. Henderson, V. Neurology 54, — Herzmann, G. Hess, T. The impact of stereotype threat on age differences in memory performance. Explicit and implicit stereotype activation effects on memory: do age and awareness moderate the impact of priming?
Aging 19, — Holland, J. Testosterone levels and cognition in elderly men: a review. Maturitas 69, — Holsboer, F. Stress, hypercortisolism and corticosteroid receptors in depression: implicatons for therapy. Horstman, A. The role of androgens and estrogens on healthy aging and longevity. Huang, C. Huffmeijer, R. Ageing and oxytocin: a call for extending human oxytocin research to ageing populations — a mini review.
Gerontology 59, 32— Hupbach, A. Moderate stress enhances immediate and delayed retrieval of educationally relevant material in healthy young men. Hurlemann, R. Oxytocin enhances amygdala-dependent, socially reinforced learning and emotional empathy in humans. Ice, G. Diurnal cycles of salivary cortisol in older adults. Psychoneuroendocrinology 29, — Isaacowitz, D.
Age differences in recognition of emotion in lexical stimuli and facial expressions. Aging 22, — Jafarzadeh, N. Oxytocin improves proliferation and neural differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells. Jankowska, E. Anabolic deficiency in men with chronic heart failure: prevalence and detrimental impact on survival.
Circulation , — The neuro-symphony of stress. Juster, R. Allostatic load biomarkers of chronic stress and impact on health and cognition. Kagerbauer, S. Plasma oxytocin and vasopressin do not predict neuropeptide concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid. Kalmijn, S. A prospective study on cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and cognitive function in the elderly.
Kassel, O. Crosstalk between the glucocorticoid receptor and other transcription factors: molecular aspects. Kendler, K. Psychiatry 17, — Interventionist causal models in psychiatry: repositioning the mind-body problem. Kirschbaum, C. Stress- and treatment-induced elevations of cortisol levels associated with impaired declarative memory in healthy adults. Kosfeld, M. Oxytocin increases trust in humans.
Nature , — Kret, M. A review on sex differences in processing emotional signals. Neuropsychologia 50, — Kubzansky, L. A heartfelt response: oxytocin effects on response to social stress in men and women. Kudielka, B. HPA axis responses to laboratory psychosocial stress in healthy elderly adults, younger adults, and children: impact of age and gender. Psychoneuroendocrinology 29, 83— Neuroendocrinology 70, — Kukolja, J.
Increased cortisol levels in cognitively challenging situations are beneficial in young but not older subjects. Psychopharmacology Berl. Kunzmann, U. Aging 20, — Landfield, P. Alzheimer Res. Laughlin, G. Sexual dimorphism in the influence of advanced aging on adrenal hormone levels: the rancho bernardo study. Lee, B. Associations of salivary cortisol with cognitive function in the baltimore memory study. Psychiatry 64, — Legros, J. Inhibitory effect of oxytocin on corticotrope function in humans: are vasopressin and oxytocin ying-yang neurohormones?
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Leuner, B. Oxytocin stimulates adult neurogenesis even under conditions of stress and elevated glucocorticoids. Hippocampus 22, — Levy, B. Reducing cardiovascular stress with positive self-stereotypes of aging. Li, G. Salivary cortisol and memory function in human aging. Aging 27, — Li, S. Aging cognition: from neuromodulation to representation. Lindheim, S. Behavioral stress responses in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and the effects of estrogen.
Liu, J. Effects of oxytocin on human social approach measured using intimacy equilibriums. Liu, S. Self-esteem change and diurnal cortisol secretion in older adulthood. Psychoneuroendocrinology 41, — Lu, P. Effects of testosterone on cognition and mood in male patients with mild Alzheimer disease and healthy elderly men.
Lupien, S. Cortisol levels during human aging predict hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits. Working memory is more sensitive than declarative memory to the acute effects of corticosteroids: a dose-response study in humans. The acute effects of corticosteroids on cognition: integration of animal and human model studies. Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. MacDonald, K. Sex, receptors, and attachment: a review of individual factors influencing response to oxytocin. The peptide that binds: a systematic review of oxytocin and its prosocial effects in humans.
Psychiatry 18, 1— Mak, P. Modulation of anxiety behavior in the elevated plus maze using peptidic oxytocin and vasopressin receptor ligands in the rat. Marsh, A. Oxytocin improves specific recognition of positive facial expressions. Martignoni, E. The brain as a target for adrenocortical steroids: cognitive implications. Psychoneuroendocrinology 17, — Mathewson, K. Salivary cortisol, socioemotional functioning, and academic performance in anxious and non-anxious children of elementary and middle school age.
Early Educ. Matthews, K. Child abuse is related to inflammation in mid-life women: role of obesity. Brain Behav. McCall, C. The animal and human neuroendocrinology of social cognition, motivation and behavior. McEwan, B. Stress, adaptation, and disease: allostasis and allostatic load. McEwen, B. Sex, stress and the hippocampus: allostasis, allostatic load and the aging process. Aging 23, — The brain as a target for steroid hormone action.
Corticosteroids, the aging brain and cognition. Trends Endocrinol. McGowan, P. Epigenetic clues to the biological embedding of early life adversity. Psychiatry 72, 4—5. Melis, M. Opposite changes in the content of oxytocin- and vasopressin-like immunoreactive peptides in the rat thymus during aging. Oxytocin concentration changes in different rat brain areas but not in plasma during aging.
Aging 13, — Meyer, T. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults. Meyer-Lindenberg, A. Oxytocin and vasopressin in the human brain: social neuropeptides for translational medicine. Moffat, S. Longitudinal assessment of serum free testosterone concentration predicts memory performance and cognitive status in elderly men. Montoya, E. Testosterone, cortisol, and serotonin as key regulators of social aggression: a review and theoretical perspective. Moriarty, A.
Cortisol awakening response and spatial working memory in man: a u-shaped relationship. Muller, M. Aging 31, — Mulnard, R. Estrogen replacement therapy for treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. Murray-Close, D. Neuroendocrine regulation and physical and relational aggression: the moderating roles of child maltreatment and gender.
Hormones And Behavior (SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY) - IResearchNet
Nater, U. Diurnal profiles of salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase change across the adult lifespan: evidence from repeated daily life assessments. Neumann, I. Balance of brain oxytocin and vasopressin: implications for anxiety, depression, and social behaviors. Trends Neurosci. Neupert, S. Physiological reactivity to cognitive stressors: variations by age and socioeconomic status. Aging Hum. Newhouse, P. Estrogen administration negatively alters mood following monoaminergic depletion and psychosocial stress in postmenopausal women.
Neuropsychopharmacology 33, — Estrogen treatment impairs cognitive performance after psychosocial stress and monoamine depletion in postmenopausal women. Menopause 17, — Memory performance of late middle-aged adults: contrasting self-stereotyping and stereotype threat accounts of assimilation to age stereotypes.
Rapid Effects of Steroid Hormones on Animal Behavior
Oitzl, M. Brain development under stress: hypotheses of glucocorticoid actions revisited. Ottowitz, W. Evaluation of prefrontal-hippocampal effective connectivity following 24 hours of estrogen infusion: an FDG-PET study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 33, — Parker, K. Effects of age on cerebrospinal fluid oxytocin levels in free-ranging adult female and infant rhesus macaques.
Patel, N. Oxytocin and vasopressin modulate risk-taking. Peavy, G. Effects of chronic stress on memory decline in cognitively normal and mildly impaired older adults. Pedersen, C.
Oxytocin control of maternal behavior regulation by sex steroids and offspring stimuli. Peper, J. Sex steroids and connectivity in the human brain: a review of neuroimaging studies. Psychoneuroendocrinology 36, — Piazza, J. Age and the association between negative affective states and diurnal cortisol. Aging 28, 47— Platje, E. Longitudinal associations in adolescence between cortisol and persistent aggressive or rule-breaking behavior.
Protopopescu, X. Orbitofrontal cortex activity related to emotional processing changes across the menstrual cycle. Pruessner, J. Age and gender predict volume decline in the anterior and posterior hippocampus in early adulthood. Quirin, M. Oxytocin buffers cortisol responses to stress in individuals with impaired emotion regulation abilities.
Ram, N. Developmental change and intraindividual variability: relating cognitive aging to cognitive plasticity, cardiovascular lability, and emotional diversity. Aging 26, — Reed, A. Meta-analysis of the age-related positivity effect: age differences in preferences for positive over negative information.
Aging 29, 1— Restituto, P. Advantage of salivary cortisol measurements in the diagnosis of glucocorticoid related disorders. Reynolds, R. Morning cortisol levels and cognitive abilities in people with type 2 diabetes the edinburgh type 2 diabetes study. Diabetes Care 33, — Richter-Levin, G. The amygdala, the hippocampus, and emotional modulation of memory. Neuroscientist 10, 31— Rimmele, U. Oxytocin makes a face in memory familiar. Ruffman, T. A meta-analytic review of emotion recognition and aging: implications for neuropsychological models of aging.
The Biological Approach
Age-related differences in deception. Rupp, H. Amygdala response to negative images in postpartum vs nulliparous women and intranasal oxytocin. Sala, M. Pharmacologic rescue of impaired cognitive flexibility, social deficits, increased aggression, and seizure susceptibility in oxytocin receptor null mice: a neurobehavioral model of autism. Psychiatry 69, — Salthouse, T.
Selective review of cognitive aging. Sapolsky, R. How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Savaskan, E. Post-learning intranasal oxytocin modulates human memory for facial identity. Scheele, D. Oxytocin enhances brain reward system responses in men viewing the face of their female partner. Scheibe, S. Emotional aging: recent findings and future trends. Schilling, T. For whom the bell curve tolls: cortisol rapidly affects memory retrieval by an inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship. Schlosser, N. Effects of acute cortisol administration on response inhibition in patients with major depression and healthy controls.
Psychiatry Res. Schmiedek, F. Keeping it steady: older adults perform more consistently on cognitive tasks than younger adults. Schneiderman, I. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37, — Schoofs, D. Working memory is differentially affected by stress in men and women. Schorscher-Petcu, A. Oxytocin-induced analgesia and scratching are mediated by the vasopressin-1A receptor in the mouse.
Schrijvers, E. Associations of serum cortisol with cognitive function and dementia: the Rotterdam Study. Alzheimers Dis. Schwabe, L. Stress effects on memory: an update and integration. Seeman, T. Impact of social environment characteristics on neuroendocrine regulation. Increase in urinary cortisol excretion and memory declines: MacArthur studies of successful aging.
Gender differences in age-related changes in HPA axis reactivity. Shafir, T. Shahrestani, S. The impact of a single administration of intranasal oxytocin on the recognition of basic emotions in humans: a meta-analysis. Neuropsychopharmacology 38, — Sharma, A. Estradiol, but not testosterone, heightens cortisol-mediated negative feedback on pulsatile ACTH secretion and ACTH approximate entropy in unstressed older men and women. Siegfried, T. Sindi, S. Depressive symptoms, cortisol, and cognition during human aging: the role of negative aging perceptions.
Stress 15, — Smeets, T. Social cognition under stress: differential effects of stress-induced cortisol elevations in healthy young men and women. Smider, N. Salivary cortisol as a predictor of socioemotional adjustment during kindergarten: a prospective study. Child Dev.
Staudinger, U. Wisdom-related knowledge in a life review task: age differences and the role of professional specialization. Aging 7, — Stein, R. The effects of age-stereotype priming on the memory performance of older adults. Stoop, R. Neuromodulation by oxytocin and vasopressin. Neuron 76, — Striepens, N. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid and blood concentrations of oxytocin following its intranasal administration in humans. Prosocial effects of oxytocin and clinical evidence for its therapeutic potential. Szeto, A. Takahashi, T. Interpersonal trust and social stress-induced cortisol elevation.
Neuroreport 16, — Taylor, S. Relation of oxytocin to psychological stress responses and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity in older women. Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight. Are self-enhancing cognitions associated with healthy or unhealthy biological profiles? Teachman, B. Aging and negative affect: the rise and fall and rise of anxiety and depression symptoms. Aging 21, — Theodoridou, A. Oxytocin and social perception: oxytocin increases perceived facial trustworthiness and attractiveness.
Tost, H. A common allele in the oxytocin receptor gene OXTR impacts prosocial temperament and human hypothalamic-limbic structure and function. Travison, T. The relative contributions of aging, health, and lifestyle factors to serum testosterone decline in men. Tucker-Drob, E. Shared and unique genetic and environmental influences on aging-related changes in multiple cognitive abilities. Neave begins the book with the necessary introductory chapters on the organization of both the nervous and the endocrine systems. In Chapter 2,"Hormones and the Endocrine System," he provides a good overview of the different types of hormones and their mechanisms of actions.
In particular, he describes the two main ways in which hormones can exert their actions on their target cells, either by interacting with cell-surface receptors to generate a secondary messenger or by entering cells and binding to intracellular receptors in order to form a "hormone-receptor complex," which is then able to penetrate the cell nucleus and exert its effects.
Over the past 50 years, the field of behavioral endocrinology has emerged as the study of how hormones alter behaviors and how behavioral interactions regulate endocrine physiology. Following a review of the principles of hormone action and basic neuroscience, Chapter 3, "Behavioural Endocrinology," provides a solid, scientific view of some of the important issues in this field of study, such as whether women's intellectual abilities are affected by their menstrual cycle and whether people are "born with" a homosexual orientation.
After providing a useful discussion of what is actually meant by "behavior," Neave goes on to explain the two principal ways in which hormones exert their actions on behavior: organizational and activational. The distinction between organizational and activational effects of hormones has been used extensively to discuss the hormones and behavior, but Neave explains why we need to reevaluate this simplistic distinction, which he argues cannot always account for the wide variety of effects produced by hormones.
In Chapter 4, "Neurological Effects of Hormones," Neave provides a useful comparison between neural and endocrine signaling. He goes on to detail how the development and use of autoradiography has allowed us to examine the expression and distribution of hormone receptors throughout the central nervous system. For example, although the molecular structure of estrogen was first isolated and determined in , it wasn't until the late s and the development of autoradiography that the first estrogen receptor was identified.
As Neave demonstrates, however, the process of identifying hormone receptors is not always straightforward, as multiple hormones can bind to the same receptor; for example, androgen receptors have the highest affinity for testosterone and dihydrotestosterone but also bind with other androgens and progesterone. Chapters 5 and 6 detail the hormonal effects on sexual determination and differentiation.