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"An extremely well-written textbook covering an important area of psychology in which suitable books are currently lacking. The author draws on a large body of.
Table of contents

Bouchard and McGue conducted a review of worldwide studies which compared the IQ of family members. The correlation figures below represent the average degree of similarity between the two people the higher the similarity, the more similar the IQ scores.

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However, there are methodological flaws which reduce the validity of twin studies. For example, Bouchard and McGue included many poorly performed and biased studies in their meta-analysis. Also, studies comparing the behavior of twin raised apart have been criticized as the twins often share similar environments and are sometimes raised by non-parental family member. It is important to appreciate that the human brain is an extremely complicated piece of biological machinery. The brain can influence many types of behavior. In addition to studying brain damaged patients, we can find out about the working of the brain in three other ways.

Children begin to plan activities, make up games, and initiate activities with others. If given this opportunity, children develop a sense of initiative and feel secure in their ability to lead others and make decisions. We know so little about the brain and its functions are so closely integrated that brain surgery is usually only attempted as a last resort.

This technique cured his epilepsy, but in the process the hippocampus had to be removed this is part of the limbic system in the middle of the brain. Afterwards, H. So now we know the hippocampus is involved in memory. Electrodes are attached to the scalp and brain waves can be traced.

During this, our brain waves begin to resemble those of our waking state though we are still fast asleep and it seems that this is when we dream whether we remember it or not. More recently methods of studying the brain have been developed using various types of scanning equipment hooked up to powerful computers. Even more sophisticated is the PET scan Positron Emission Tomography which uses a radioactive marker as a way of studying the brain at work. The procedure is based on the principle that the brain requires energy to function and that the regions more involved in the performance of a task will use up more energy.

What the scan, therefore, enables researchers to do is to provide ongoing pictures of the brain as it engages in mental activity. These and other methods for producing images of brain structure and functioning have been extensively used to study language and PET scans, in particular, are producing evidence that suggests that the Wernicke-Gerschwind model may not after all be the answer to the question of how language is possible.

Theories within the biological approach support nature over nurture. However, it is limiting to describe behavior solely in terms of either nature or nurture, and attempts to do this underestimate the complexity of human behavior. It is more likely that behavior is due to an interaction between nature biology and nurture environment. For example, individuals may be predisposed to certain behaviors, but these behaviors may not be displayed unless they are triggered by factors in the environment.

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Gerontology 59, 32— Hupbach, A. Moderate stress enhances immediate and delayed retrieval of educationally relevant material in healthy young men. Hurlemann, R. Oxytocin enhances amygdala-dependent, socially reinforced learning and emotional empathy in humans. Ice, G. Diurnal cycles of salivary cortisol in older adults. Psychoneuroendocrinology 29, — Isaacowitz, D.

Age differences in recognition of emotion in lexical stimuli and facial expressions. Aging 22, — Jafarzadeh, N. Oxytocin improves proliferation and neural differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells. Jankowska, E. Anabolic deficiency in men with chronic heart failure: prevalence and detrimental impact on survival.

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Hormones And Behavior (SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY) - IResearchNet

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Rapid Effects of Steroid Hormones on Animal Behavior

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The Biological Approach

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In particular, he describes the two main ways in which hormones can exert their actions on their target cells, either by interacting with cell-surface receptors to generate a secondary messenger or by entering cells and binding to intracellular receptors in order to form a "hormone-receptor complex," which is then able to penetrate the cell nucleus and exert its effects.

Over the past 50 years, the field of behavioral endocrinology has emerged as the study of how hormones alter behaviors and how behavioral interactions regulate endocrine physiology. Following a review of the principles of hormone action and basic neuroscience, Chapter 3, "Behavioural Endocrinology," provides a solid, scientific view of some of the important issues in this field of study, such as whether women's intellectual abilities are affected by their menstrual cycle and whether people are "born with" a homosexual orientation.

After providing a useful discussion of what is actually meant by "behavior," Neave goes on to explain the two principal ways in which hormones exert their actions on behavior: organizational and activational. The distinction between organizational and activational effects of hormones has been used extensively to discuss the hormones and behavior, but Neave explains why we need to reevaluate this simplistic distinction, which he argues cannot always account for the wide variety of effects produced by hormones.

In Chapter 4, "Neurological Effects of Hormones," Neave provides a useful comparison between neural and endocrine signaling. He goes on to detail how the development and use of autoradiography has allowed us to examine the expression and distribution of hormone receptors throughout the central nervous system. For example, although the molecular structure of estrogen was first isolated and determined in , it wasn't until the late s and the development of autoradiography that the first estrogen receptor was identified.

As Neave demonstrates, however, the process of identifying hormone receptors is not always straightforward, as multiple hormones can bind to the same receptor; for example, androgen receptors have the highest affinity for testosterone and dihydrotestosterone but also bind with other androgens and progesterone. Chapters 5 and 6 detail the hormonal effects on sexual determination and differentiation.